Surface: 814.578 km²
Population: 61.180.000 inhabitants
Density of population: 73 inhabitants/km²
Official language: Turkish
Official currency: lira
Imported products: brut petroleum, car pieces, metals, iron and steel
Exported products: textiles, tobacco, leather, cotton, fruits, nuts, minerals
Brut Intern Product: 179.540 million $
State type: Republic
The coast depressions are moister and gentler than the plateau from the interior, with few rainfall and cold winters. On the Black Sea coast it rains little all year long, but the coasts of the Egee Sea and Mediterranean Sea have Mediterranean climate, where rains only in the winter. In the plateau there are summer rains and during the winter they transform into snow. The south-east of Turkey
is semi-desert. The medium temperature in Ankara is 0°C in January, 22°C in July and rainfall of 35 cm per year. The numbers for Izmir are: 9°C, 27°C and 65 cm, and for Samsun are: 7°C, 22°C and 75 cm.
The industry of tourism developed at the end of the 70's and have grown in the last few years. The attractions include the coast regions, historical and architectural sights, especially in Istanbul. Turkey is visited by 6.5 million tourist annually and in 1990 the incomes from tourism were 2.000 million $.
The European side of Turkey is a part of the Tracia Semi-isle, which extends to the boarder until Greece. Turkey has mountains along the boarder with Bulgaria. The main part of Turkey is Anatolia Semi-isle. The medium height of the mountains is between 1.000 and 2.000 m, and the highest peak is Agri Dagi (5.165 m) in Ararat Mountain. The north side of the plateau is the Kuzey Anadolu Daglari Mountain, which ends in the east with the Pontic Mountains. The south side contains the Taurus Mountain near the Mediterranean Sea.
50% of the population works in the agriculture. 36% of the land is cultivated and 11% is grassland. The agricultural products are 47% of the exports. They cultivate cereals, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, tea, olives, grapes, nuts and figs. The silk is produced in Bursa. Turkey is a legal producer of opium for pharmaceutical use. They have many animals: 40 million sheep, 13 million goats, 12 million cows and few horses. 26% of the country's surface is covered with forest and the wood is important.
Turkey has deposits of chromium in Maras and Fethiye, coal and iron ore. Over 3 million tones of petroleum are extracted near Siirt in the south-east. Turkey exports 15 million tones of petroleum annually.
The industry had developed in the last two decades. The most important industries are: food, steel, wood, pharmaceutical products, glass and construction. Industrial cities are: Aydin, Denizil, Adana, Gaziantep, Kayseri, Eregli, Batman, Mersin, Izmir and Izmit.
The country has 10.386 km of railway and 59.770 km of roads, and also bridge over Bosfor. Important ports are: Istanbul, Mersin and Iskenderun.
Half of the population use wood as main source of fuel. The thermo-electric power station produce 62% of the electric energy and 38% is produced in the hydro-electric stations, in Keban on the Euphrates River.
Population and Cities
85% of the population is Turkish and 12% is Kurd. Over 98% is Musulman. Ankara is the capital of the country since 1932, when the new republic was formed. Istanbul, the ex Bezant, is the biggest city in Turkey. Under the name of Constantinopol was the capital of the Roman Empire. Izmir is a port, an industrial and commercial center.