New York City is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, allowing it to facilitate one of the most extensive subway and bus systems in the world. It is also famous for many of its bridges and tunnels. New York City offers visitors a bounty of famous streets and avenues.
New York City is an ethnic melting pot where the most dramatic cultural contrasts are commonplace. It is among the most geographically and demographically complex of world cities, its economy one of the most diverse, and its cultural scene among the richest and most variegated.
New York City consists of five boroughs Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island (formerly Richmond), whi
ch correspond to five counties of New York state as New York, Kings, Queens, Bronx and Richmond. All are located near the point where the Hudson River empties into Upper New York Bay of the Atlantic Ocean. The city's only land boundaries are Westchester county on the north and Nassau county on Long Island to the east. The city's waterfront is used for shipping and recreation. The city's land has been altered considerably by human intervention, with substantial land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most notable in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.
Although located at about the same latitude as the much warmer European cities of Naples and Madrid, New York has a humid continental climate resulting from prevailing wind patterns that bring cool air from the interior of the North American continent, New York City has cold winters but the city's coastal position keeps temperatures slightly warmer than inland regions, helping to moderate the amount of snow which averages 63.5 to 88.9 cm each year.
New York City, officially the City of New York, is the most populous city in the United States and the most densely populated major city in North America. Located in the state of New York, New York City has a population of 8.1 million within an area of 321 square miles (approximately 830 km²). It is at the heart of the New York Metropolitan Area, which at a population of 22 million is among the largest urban areas in the world. The city proper consists of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each of these boroughs, except for Staten Island, is home to at least a million people and would each be among the nation's largest cities if considered independently. Nicknamed "the Big Apple", the city attracts large numbers of immigrants from over 180 countries, as well as people from all over the United States, who come for its culture, energy, cosmopolitanism, and economic opportunity. The city is also currently notable for having the lowest crime rate among major American cities.
New York is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture, and is one of the world's major global cities with a virtually unrivaled collection of museums, galleries, performance venues, media outlets, international corporations, and financial markets. It is also home to the global headquarters of the United Nations. The city is a major center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in the United States. The New York metropolitan area had an estimated gross metropolitan product of $952.6 billion in 2005, the largest regional economy in the United States. The New York Stock Exchange, located on Wall Street is the world first largest stock exchange, measured by average daily trading volume and overall market capitalization.
The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by the number of stations in operation, with 468. It is the fourth-largest when measured by annual ridership of 1.4 billion passenger trips in 2005. The New York City's public bus fleet and commuter rail network are the largest in North America. New York City is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States, this area is served by three major airports, John F. Kennedy International, Newark Liberty International and LaGuardia, with plans for a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, to be taken over and enlarged by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey as a "reliever" airport to help cope with increasing passenger volume.
The tourism is important to New York City, with about 40 million foreign and American tourists visiting each year, the majores destinations are the Empire State Building, Ellis Island, Broadway theatre productions, museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and other tourist attractions including Central Park, Washington Square Park, Rockefeller Center, Times Square, the Bronx Zoo, New York Botanical Garden, luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues, and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the Tribeca Film Festival, and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. The Statue of Liberty is a major tourist attraction and one of the most recognizable icons of the United States.