Lviv is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.
Lviv is the biggest city in Western Ukraine and it was founded as a fort in the mid-13th century (first mentioned as a city in a medieval chronicle in 1256) by Prince Danylo Halitski of Galicia, one of the most powerful princes in east-central Europe and a former principality of Kievan Rus. Lviv was named after his son Lev.
Lviv being located roughly in the midpoint of Europe, it quickly became the center of trade and commerce. Major trade roads from the Black and Baltic Sea ports, East and Western Europe led to its rapid economic development. Due to its geographical location Lviv was a meeting place of Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish and Austrian cultures. Arm
enians, Hungarians, Greeks, Italians, Serbs, Moldavians and many more others lived there for the duration of many centuries. All of them together had introduced wide variety of traditions, cultures, religions and a mix of architecture.
Lviv is a major economic and cultural center of the Western region of independent Ukrainian state.
The old city, surrounded by walls, was located at the foothills of the High Castle and the banks of the river Poltva. In the 13th century the river was full of water, and used for commerce and transporation of goods. In the early 20th century, as the river became polluted, it was covered where it flows through the city. The central street of Lviv, Independendance Avenue (Prospect Svobody) is right above the river, as well as the famous Opera House.
Lviv's climate is moderate continental. The average temperatures are −4 °C (27 °F) in January and +18 °C (65 °F) in June. Average annual rainfall is 660 mm (26 in), with notable water deficit in the summer months. Average of sixty-six cloudy days per year.
In 17th century Lviv was besieged unsuccessfully several times. Constant struggles against invading armies gave it the motto Semper fidelis. In 1649, the city was besieged by the Cossacks under Bohdan Chmielnicki, who seized and destroyed the local castle. However, the Cossacks did not retain the city and withdrew after receiving a ransom. In 1655 the Swedish armies invaded Poland and soon took most of it. Eventually the Polish king Jan II Kazimierz solemnly pronounced his vow to consecrate the country to the protection of the Mother of God and proclaimed Her the Patron and Queen of the lands in his kingdom at Lwow Latin Cathedral in 1656 (Lviv Oath).
There are many museums and art galleries in Lviv, most notable are the National Gallery, Museum of Religion (formerly Museum of Atheism) and National Museum (formerly Museum of Industry).
Lviv is one of the most important education centres of Ukraine. It is home to three major universities and a number of smaller schools of higher education. There are 8 institutes of the National Science Academy of Ukraine, more than 40 research institutes, 3 academies and 11 state-owned colleges.
The most important are:
University of Lviv
Ukrainian Catholic University
Tourist Attractions :
The Old Town
- Ploscha Rynok Market Square; 185,000 square metres.
- Black House
- Armenian Cathedral
- Greek Cathedral
- Latin Cathedral
- St. Yura church
- Dominican Abbey
- Boim Chapel Vysoky Zamok hill overlooking the historical centre
- Union of Lublin mound
- Lychakivskiy Cemetery This article is licensed under the [GNU Free Documentation License]. It uses material from Wikipedia