Krasnoyarsk is the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the third largest city in Siberia, having a population of 909,341 in the 2002 census. It lies on the Yenisei River and is an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway.
Krasnoyarsk is one of the earliest settlements of Siberia. It was founded as a fort in 1628 by Cossack Andrey Dubenskiy. It was a wooden fortress with a wall with five towers. For 100 years Krasnoyarsk played the role of frontier advanced post. During its existence it was never conquered. When Siberia was finally joined to Russia in1690 the fortress officially received the status of a town.
Krasnoyarsk's population includes a number of peoples, the most numerous are Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans and Belarusians. Of the late years th
e number of Tajiks, Uzbeks and other Central Asian and Caucasian peoples has extensively grown because of the vast, often illegal immigration in search for work.
The extension of the Great Siberian Post Road in 1735 stimulated futher development of the city. Gold discovery and the arrival of the Trans-Siberian Railroad accelerated Krasnoyarsk growth.
In 1934 the Yenesei province was reorganized into Krasnoyarsk Territory and Krasnoyarsk became its administrative center.
In 1960 one of the largest hydropower stations was built here.
Today there are more than 150 enterprises in Krasnoyarsk. The Krasnoyarsk Territory is very rich in raw material areas. There are plants producing chemicals, aluminium, wood products and synthetic rubber .
Many well-known in Russia people were born in Krasnoyarsk. Nowadays Kransoyarsk is a cultural center with eight theaters, five museums, a hundred public libraries and sixty seven clubs.
The Kransoyarks region attracts by its nature which includes several zones such as tundra, taiga and arctic desert. Ist fauna consists of great number spices of birds and mammals. The climate here is not as severe as in Taimir. During the summer the temperature rises up to +30C degree, but in the winter it drops to -30C degree.
Krasnoyarsk is the hometown of many famous people, some of whom are well-known throughout the world. The most prominent culture figures are the world-famous historic painter Vasily Surikov, the classic writer Viktor Astafiev, the world-class opera singers Pyotr Slovtsov and Dmitri Hvorostovsky. The other honourable artists are the painters Andrey Pozdeev, Valeriy Kudrinskiy and Toivo Ri¤nnel, sculptors Boris Musat and Yuriy Zlotya, writers Roman Solntsev and Nikolay Gayduk.
There is a number of local holidays celebrated annually in Krasnoyarsk. The most significant holiday is the Day of the City celebrated in June, usually with the carnival. Other holidays and cultural events are: the Mana Festival usually held on last weekend of June with the traditional bard contest, the International Museum Biennale traditionally held in the Krasnoyarsk Cultural/Historical Center, the avant-garde Museum Night festival dedicated to the International Museum Day (May 18), the Jazz on Yenisey festival, the Stolbist Day held many times a year celebrating the traditions of mountain climbing in the Stolby national reserve, the Bikers' Rally.
Krasnoyarsk has a number of local television companies and the highly-developed telecommunications, many districts of the city have LAN-based broadband Internet access.
Next to Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk is a very prominent scientific and educational center of Siberia with more than 30 higher education facilities, many of which are the branches of the Russian Academy of Science, and about 200 high schools. The most notable higher education institutes are:
- Krasnoyarsk State University (Russian abbreviation is KGU), founded in 1963 as a division of Novosibirsk State University, became standalone university in 1969
- Krasnoyarsk State Technical University (Russian abbreviation is KGTU), founded in 1956
- Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (Russian abbreviation is KGPU), founded in 1932
- Siberian State Technological University (Russian abbreviation is SibGTU), the oldest in the city, founded in 1930 as the Siberian Institute of Forest
- Sukachev Institute of Forest, founded in 1944
Similarly to Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk has the special city district called Akademgorodok (Academic Town in Russian) where many of the institutes are located. There, in the Institute of Biophysics, the experiment on ecological isolation of human beings called "Bios", similar to the US experiment Biosphere 2, has been successfully held in 1973-1985.
The most popular place of attraction for tourists visiting Krasnoyarsk is the huge national nature reserve Stolby (Pillars in Russian) or the Rock Pillars. Stolby covers an area of 470 kmĀ² (181 mileĀ²) with numerous giant granite rocks formations up to 100 meters high, many of very extraordinary shapes. Stolby is also a major rock climbing location, many local climbers intentionally do not use any belaying equipment and call their extreme sport "stolbizm", which is known around the world as solo climbing.
Other popular showplaces include the Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Power Station dam, the Karaulnaya Gora hill with the Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel, museums, theaters, etc. This article is licensed under the [GNU Free Documentation License]. It uses material from Wikipedia
Krasnoyarsk Image : kgs.ru