Surface: 1.904.569 km²
Population: 187.765.000 inhabitants
Density of population: 90 inhabitants/km²
Official language: Indonesian Bahasa
Official currency: rupiah
Imported products: iron, steel, textiles, car pieces, petroleum, rice
Exported products: coffee, brut petroleum, petrol, tea, pepper, shrimps, rubber
Brut Intern Product: 189 billion $
State type: republic
Indonesia has an equatorial climate, but there are many regional variations. The northern monsoon blows from China and Pacific Ocean between November and March, and the southern monsoon blows from the Indian Ocean and Australia between May and September. The rains are usually abundant (150-500 cm) all year long. Storms are frequent and the temperatures are high. Medan, in North,
and Jakarta have temperatures of 26 Celsius degrees or 27 Celsius degrees. In the mountains is much colder and the most arid regions are in south-east, especially in the Portuguese Timor.
Indonesia has a big surface of ocean with 13.600 islands. The biggest three islands are: Kalimantan, Sumatra and the Western Irian and with Java and Sulawezi they have the most part of the population. Most of the islands are mountainous, but in many places appear depressions. Sumatera and Kalimantan have large coast depressions and Java has rich valleys of rivers. Small islands as Lombok and Bali have also rich depressions. Its highest point is peak Djaja (5029 m) on the Western Irian. A specific feature is Lake Toba, situated in a volcanic crater. In Indonesia there are many volcanic peaks still active.
67% of Indonesia's surface is afforested and the country has the biggest forest reserve in Asia. Is the second in the production of hard essences after India. Near the coast are mangrove and palms forests and inside the country are tropical forests. Special wood as ebony and sandal are important. From the forests are obtained medicines, tannin and paint, but also bamboos and Indian reed.
Indonesia is an agricultural country; almost 70% of the population is hired in the agricultural production. The most important plant is the rice and they produce 30 millions tones per year. Indonesia satisfies its intern needs almost totally. Other cultures for food are: manioc, soy, sweet potatoes, sugar cane and coconuts and cultures for trade are: palm oil, coffee, tea, condiments and rubber. The volcanic and alleviation soils are important in the agriculture. The hot and moist climate is favorable for many plants and allows double harvest. This contributed to the rise of the production and the imports of Indonesia were reduced.
The traditional trades remained important in the entire country and in some regions they developed because of the tourism, especially on the Bali Island. The most famous specialties are the batik textures which are handmade. It is also important the processing of the silver, near Yogyakarta on Java and in Bali, Southern Sulawesi and Sumatra. The sculpture in wood is very popular, but more important is in Bali.
Energy and Industry:
Wood is an important fuel, but Indonesia also has coal deposits and large reserves of natural gas and petrol. 80% of the electricity is produced in the thermo-electric power centrals and the rest of 20% in the hydro-electric stations. The industrial development grew in the last 20 years with car, cement and glass factories. There are also old industries as tobacco and wood industry. In Palembang developed the petrochemical industry.
Major Cities in Indonesia:
Java has only 7% of Indonesia's surface but contains over 50% of the population, with a medium density of 690 inhabitants/km². Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is situated on the north-west coast. The city is a mixture of old and new buildings, with many modern houses but also with thousands of shanties. It is the principal administrative and commercial centre. The principal port of Indonesia is Tandjung Priok which takes care of the distribution on Java and other islands. Surabaya has 2.027.913 inhabitants and is a port and an industrial centre. Bandung has 1.462.637 inhabitants and is an industrial important city. .Medan has 1.378.955 inhabitants and the biggest mosque in Indonesia. Indonesia has the biggest Moslem population in the world.