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Estonia

 Q:        
Estonia Surface: 45.215km²
Population: 1,324,333 inhabitants
Density of population: 35 inhabitants/km²
Capital: Tallinn (484.000 inhabitants)
Official language: Estonian
Official currency: crown
Brut Intern Product: 6.240 $/inhabitant
State type: Republic

Geographical Characteristics
Because it was affected in the quaternary by the glacial calotte, the country's territory is formed by low swamp regions and high calcareous regions in the north (50 m), and sandy zones in south (Kuutse 217 m) and south-east (Suur Munamagi 318 m which is the maximum altitude in the Baltic countries). Almost 10% of the country's surface is represented by more then 1.500 little islands in Baltic Sea and the great of them are Saaremaa (2.673 km²) and Hiiuma (989 km²). The hydrographic network is ver y large more then 150 water courses and the greatest river is Narve which flows into Peipsi Lake (3.555 km²) near the border with Russia. There are also over 1.400 lakes.

Climate, Vegetation and Fauna
The climate of Estonia is a temperate one with maritime influence on the west coast. The total rainfall is 500-700 mm per year with a peak at the end of the summer. The medium temperatures in the summer are near 20ºC and -5ºC in the winter season. The vegetation is very rich most of it being represented by pine forest (over 40% of the country's surface). There are a lot of animals in these forests like wolfs, foxes, bears and others. There are 59 protected plant species and 198 protected animal species. There is a National Park, a biosphere reservation, five national reservations and other 60 other reservations.

Population and Cities
The country has 1.576.000 inhabitants, a birth-rate of 14.2‰, a mortality of 12.4‰. The urban population is near 72%. The main cities after the capital are: Tartu (115.000 inhabitants), Narva (82.000 inhabitants), Kohtla-Jarve (77.000 inhabitants) and Parnu (54.000 inhabitants). 61% of the population is Estonians and the rest are Russians (30%), Ukrainians (3%), Germans and others. The non-Estonian population is concentrated in the north-east, for example in Narna are 96% non-Estonians. In the villages 87% of the population is Estonians. The density of the population is higher in the north and lower in the west. The main religions are the Protestantism and Orthodoxies.

State
Estonia is a parliament republic according to The Constitution voted on June 28, 1992. The legislative activity is exerted by the Parliament (Riigi Kogu) and the executive activity by govern voted in legislative elections. There are 10 political parties and the main are Popular Front of Estonia, the Association for the free Estonia, the international Movement of Working People from Estonia and the Communist Party.

Economy
Estonia is a country with a developed agriculture and industry which is based on imported prime materials and fuels. The minerals are reduced and main of them are coal (6 billion tones) and phosphates (700 million tones). 33% of the population works in industry and the main industries are: electric, food, chemical, cement, paper and textile. 12% of the population works in agriculture which is based on the cultivating of potatoes, cereals and vegetables and growing animals like cows for milk and meat. In 2004 Estonia was included in the European Union and that was a good fact for its economy.



Tags: republic, tallinn, kuutse, baltic sea, narve


Date Added: 31 January '07


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