Surface: 8.511.965 km²
Population: 153.332.000 inhabitants
Density of population: 18 inhabitants/km²
Capital: Brasilia (1.8421.000 inhabitants)
Official language: Portuguese
Official currency: Cruzeiro
Imported products: sugar cane, coffee, cocoa
Exported products: wood, iron ore and bauxite
Brut Intern Product: 2.680 $/inhabitant
State type: Republic
Geographical Characteristics :
Brazil is one of the largest countries on Earth and occupies almost 1/2 of South America's surface. The relief is mountainous with low altitudes. 3/5 of the surface doesn's exceed 300 m. the country has two big relief elements: Amazonian Plain which occupies 56% of the country's surface and is an enormous low plain and Brazilian Plateau with low altitudes (betw
een 300-600 m). In the east and south of the plateau the altitudes are a little bit higher and there were formed mountainous chains as Serra caparao, Serra Itatiaia and Serra de Orgaos. In the west of those mountains there is the Mato Grosso Plateau with altitudes between 500 and 700 m. The highest heights are in north-east in the Guyana Plateau.
(Pico de Neblina 3.014 m).
Climate, Vegetation and Fauna :
Because of the great extension in latitude the country has many different types of climate, from the equatorial one with many rainfalls (2.500-3.000 mm per year) and high temperatures, between 26-27 Celsius Degrees, to the temperate one, in the south of Capricorn Tropic. The hydrographical network is rich and dominated by the Amazon, one of the world's biggest rivers (6.275 km length, 3.165 km are in Brazil; 7.2 million km² the hydrographic basin, 4.7 million km² in Brazil), and its tributaries: Putumayo, Rio Yapura, Rio Negro, Purus, Madeira, Tapajos and others. Other important rivers are Sao Francisco (3.165 km) in the east and Parana (4.700 km) in the south. In Brazil there are two important vegetal elements: equatorial forest or selves with over 4.000 species and savanna. The fauna is characteristic to the vegetal elements and poor in species, especially mammals. There are many protected zones and national parks.
Population and Cities :
The country has 153.332.000 inhabitants and is the most populated in Latin America. The birth rate is 28.63 Ã¢â‚¬Â° and the death rate is 7.93 Ã¢â‚¬Â°. 75% of the population lives in cities. The most important cities are: Sao Paulo (15.2 million inhabitants), Rio de Janeiro (10.2 million inhabitants), Belo Horizonte (3.1 million inhabitants), Porto Alegre (2.6 million inhabitants), Recife (2.5 million inhabitants), Salvador (2.1 million inhabitants), Fortaleza (1.9 million inhabitants), Curitiba (1.8 million inhabitants) and Nova Iguacu (1.2 million inhabitants). 55% of the people are white, especially Portuguese and Italians, 38% are mulattos, 6% are black and the rest are Asian and Amerindians. Over 80% of the population is concentrated on or in the nearby of the Atlantic coast. More than 1/2 of the surface has a density of population less than 1 inhabitant/km² the north and south-west of the country.
The country is a presidential republic, a federal state, according to the Constitution in 1988. The legislative activity is exerted by the President and National Congress formed of Federal Senate and Deputy Room and the executive by a cabinet leaded and chosen by the President. The political parties are 21 and some of them are: the National Reconstruction Party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, the Liberal Front Party, the Brazilian Laborite Party, the Christian Democrat Party, the Employees Party, the Social Christian Party, the Communist Party and the Brazilian Communist Party.
Brazil is one of the most developed Latin-American countries based on a great natural and human potential. It has many forestry resources (almost 500 million hectares) and mining deposits: iron ore, bauxite, manganese, tin, gold, natural phosphates and salt. Is one of the most important exporters of wood, iron ore and bauxite in the world. The processing industries are developed and contribute with 1/3 at the Brut Intern Product. The main industrial cities are: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. The country has a big hydrographic potential on Parana. People cultivate sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, corn, manioc, soy, cotton, coco nuts, bananas and oranges.