Surface: 7.686.848 km²
Population: 17.336.000 inhabitants
Density of population: 2 inhabitants/km²
Capital: Canberra (310.000 inhabitants)
Official language: English
Official currency: Australian Dollar
Exported products: sugar cane, grain
Brut Intern Product: 17.000 $/inhabitant
State type: Monarchy
Australia occupies the continent with the same name. The country is characterized of a relief with continental dimensions. The predominant relief is the one of plains and plateaus. The mountains are grouped in the Australian Cordelier (Great Diving range), their highest peak is Kosciuszko Peak (2.234 m) and they accompany the eastern seaside on a distance of approximately 3.400 km. The central part of the country is formed of plains. One of
them is the one drained by the Murray River and its tributaries (the most important is Darling). In the central zone exists also the Eyre Lake. Almost 50% of the country's surface is occupied by the Great Western Plateau, an association of low plateaus (300-500 m) and isolated mountains with heights over 1.500 m. The coast plains are relative narrow, an exception is Nullarbor Plain along the Great Australian Golf. In the west side of the country there are Gibson and Victoria Deserts.
The climate is temperate in south and tropical in north with unique faun and vegetation. The tropical climate is dominant with a more abundant humidity in the north where there are recorded sometimes devastating hurricanes and the rainfall is less than 200 mm per year. For example on December 24, 1974 Darwin city was destroyed by Tracy Hurricane and was rebuilt after. In the south-east the climate is temperate with oceanic influences in the Tasmania Islands. The vegetation has over 13.000 species which can't be seen anywhere else. There are 606 species of birds. The country has 200 national parks and natural reservations.
The country is a constitutional monarchy, a federal state, according to the Constitution. The chief of the country is Great Britain's Queen represented by a general Governor. The legislative activity is exerted by the Federal Parliament and the executive by general Governor. The political parties are 11 and some of them are: Australian Laborite Party, Liberal Party of Australia and Laborite Democratic Australian Party.
Population and Cities
The country has 17.336.000 inhabitants. The birth rate is 15.4% and the death rate is 7%. 86% of the population lives in cities. The most important cities are: Melbourne (3.1 million inhabitants), Sydney (3.7 million inhabitants), Brisbane (1.3 million inhabitants), Perth (1.2 million inhabitants) and Adelaide (1 million inhabitants). Almost 90% of the people have Irish and Britain ancestors and others are Europeans, Chinese and Vietnamese. The population is rare in the central part of the country. Most of them are Muslims and Christians.
The country is an immigration one and is one of the most important producers of bauxite, iron ore, lead, zinc, wool, grain, meat and sugar. The processing industries developed after the Second World War and are various. The main industrial cities are: Newcastle, Sydney, Kembla, Melbourne, Ballart, Adelaide, Brisbane and Hobart. 6% of the population works in agriculture and is specialized in growing animals: sheep, and cows. They also cultivate cereals and sugar cane. Tourism brings great incomes.